Drafting Equipment for Architects

A career in architecture brings a lifetime of opportunity to express your creativity and make a positive impact on the communities around you. Make sure you invest in quality equipment you can rely on throughout your career and that will stay dependable even as the architectural landscape shifts around you. Today, we list the important equipment that used to be very essential before the use of technology and computers.

What is the difference between design and drafting?

When it comes to engineering and architecture, design and drafting are a staple in those industries. Design is the initial phase of the project of any architectural endeavor which consists mostly of planning, whereas the drafting phase is the process in which the ideas come alive in the form of shapes and structures.

What are the different drafting tools?

Drafting tools are instruments that can be used for measurement and layout of drawings or to improve consistency and the speed for creating standard drawing elements.

  • Drawing tools
  • Pencil
  • Drafting board
  • T-square
  • Drafting machine
  • French Curves
  • Rulers
  • Compass
  • Templates
  • Perspective machines
  • Drawing materials
  • Drafting paper
  • Thick draft paper
  • Cloth
  • Tracing paper
  • Tracing tube
  • Inks
  • Dry transfer

What are the materials used in mechanical drafting?

The Mechanical Drawing Tools commonly used in mechanical drawings such as dividers, drawing boards, pencils, scales, triangles, and T-squares.

  • Compass Sets and Dividers
  • Drafting Tools
  • Drafting Kits
  • Drafting Scales
  • Trimmers & Cutting Tools
  • Parallel Straightedges
  • Drafting Triangles
  • Irregular Curves
  • Portable Drawing Boards

Source of material: engineersupply.com

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Keys to pass your first semester in Architecture School

You may not have studied or had the opportunity to study architecture before. It can be daunting prospect, especially for the first year.

The thought processes and projects that lie ahead of you (although very exciting) will likely present a whole new way of working and thinking, particularly in terms of the learning structure and techniques required to successfully pass them.

So here are few tips that will help you with your first semester of Architecture School

  • Design Studio class

Get to know your classmates, you will spend most of your times with them for the next five years. It creates a collaborative environment, provides a team working atmosphere to overcome difficult aspects of your project.

  • Be equipped

It is crucial, architecture is an expensive course. Make sure you have the right equipment from the pen to your laptop. There are many other drawing tools that you must prepare and should be with you all the time.

  • Be open-minded and learn from the others

Do not shut yourself from the others, learning brings back to the collaboration ethos of a studio environment and working with your peers

  • Keep your initial ideas private

Start your idea of your design privately, but once developed, share with the people around you and get them to critique and open discussion. It will help you see and highlight areas you might not seen

  • Attendance

Although architecture school can be self-directed study, extreme amount of absence will not be tolerated. You will miss valuable parts of the course and its content

  • Be active outdoor

Join a sport team or participate in other activities. Create friendships outside of architecture school. Architecture School can be an intense environment, but it will be over before you know it, make the most of it

  • Read

Reading can be a very beneficial to your self-growth, it also help with your initial ideas. Make sure you find 30 minutes of your time for reading

  • Have fun

Architecture is the most freest learning experience you would have, every new project brings a new challenge, methods and areas to learn, it’s fun

Today we just listed some of the important keys that will help you in your first year in Architecture School.

Make sure you research more about new tips and keys to be the best of you

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Comment down below on your experience as first year student in Architecture School and any other school

Do not be an architect, Unless!

You have dreams about being an architect?

You need to read the below points in order to be a successful architect. There are many tips which can help you to be a good architecture student, do not miss any of them.

You might think being an architect is very prestigious, think twice about that

Here are the common mistakes made by many architecture students:

  • Choosing the wrong field

You might think it’s cool to secure an architect job, but the fact is that you need to have passion and enjoy playing with colors, forms, and lines.

  • Wasting time

You must always insure to have the best design idea; however, wasting too much time might result in a hurried, last-minute submission of flimsy projects

  • Weak designs

Focus on complex compositions, be imaginative and innovative. Do not expect a good mark if you submit a poor and cheesy work. Producing a well-balanced design is always challenging, but it can be obtained by giving attention to you design.

  • Improvement

Turn your weakness into strengths. Practice always makes perfect, learn to use distracting mechanisms by flaunting your own strengths.

  • Development over time

It is what the examiners usually want, do not send negative signs by producing undeveloped work.

  •  Restarting your work

Many students have the habit to abandon the old work and start over. Notice that what seem “weak” to you might end up to be amazing design. Do not fall into the trap.

  • Copying others

Committing plagiarism is one of the gravest mistakes. It only shows that you are not qualified and the lack of originality and interest

  • Visual level

Architects should have an excellent, refined presentation. You should show your commitment and reflect how organized your work is.

  • Procrastination

It is one of the most common mistakes among architecture students. Many highly skillful students tend to procrastinate and delay their work, planning the process of your design is essential.

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Source of material: arch2o.com

Reference Architecture for Healthcare – Introduction and Principles — The Open Group Blog

In this article, I’ll share guiding principles for a reference architecture for the Healthcare industry. The main beneficiaries of this reference architecture are patients, health professionals, and Healthcare organizations. Its main users are planners, managers, and Enterprise Architects. A second article will focus on key design ideas for such a reference architecture, followed by a third article to describe its essential capabilities.

Reference Architecture for Healthcare – Introduction and Principles — The Open Group Blog

COVID-19 and the built environment

Social distancing has Americans mostly out of the places they usually gather and in their homes as we try to reduce the spread of COVID-19. But some …

COVID-19 and the built environment

Planning and Design Impact on Diseases

Architects and designers are the main role in any construction and became more needed as the industry grows. They have always tried to come up with sustainable designs to avoid any unhealthy spaces generated by the integration of natural air and proper ventilation. In this research, people have turned into healthcare systems to seek urgent treatment and protection that most likely to be insufficient during any major outbreak and it can be shown from big cities who have been hit the most by COVID-19. Infectious diseases were not the only outbreak in the last years, as history shown that such events might occur in the future. The study suggests utilizing an infectious disease surveillance system which can be integrated into our building design to avoid any future outbreak might occur. A study published by (Wang, Jin, Xiong, Tu, & Ye, 2017) discussed the importance of early warning of diseases outbreak and infectious disease surveillance data for disease prevention and control. Community-based surveillance is one of the essential according to target site especially in high-risk population areas (Lan, Zhou, Zhang, & Lai, 2017).

South Korea emission of NO2 after and before COVID-19 outbreak
Sentinel-5P, 1 Feb–17 Mar 2019

Design regulations pay more attention to fire alarms and emergency exits rather than healthcare and disease surveillance. As the population grows, transportations and buildings advance in developed countries which puts the risk of infectious outbreaks anytime. This study suggests the integration of surveillance and monitoring systems in and future or existing design to reduce the numbers of future outbreaks and to save lives. Although sustainable design is an essential factor to improve any space’s design, there is a need regulation that enables the use of healthcare guidelines into our design. It is evident that the expansion of transportation and population have increased the spread of viral diseases in a very short time, which is why we need urgent attention to our healthcare systems.

COVID-19 Outbreak Reduced Pollution

The coronavirus recent outbreak shut most businesses, quarantined people in their homes and closed boarders between continents. The latest evident indicated that the pollution, CO2, and NO2 emission level reduced to 40% as many are locked down to avoid the spread of the virus (“Coronavirus pandemic leading to huge drop in air pollution | Environment | The Guardian,” n.d.). The reports from China, South Korea, Europe and the USA showed that the NO2 “a toxic gas which causes significant inflammation of the airways” has reduced to 10-30% than normal. The Guardian posted several illustrations of satellite images to prove how the outbreak slashed the world pollution.

Pollution levels in China in 2019, left, and 2020.
Source: Guardian Visuals / ESA satellite data.jpg

WHO said that the pollution from cars engines and power plants increased the NO2 which is a vector for pathogens and many health problems. The World Health Organization is also investigating whether the increasing in pollution has a major impact that made the COVID-19 more virulent.

Other experts explained that it’s too early to confirm that the lockdown and the dropping of air pollution will offset the mortality of COVID-19 or any future health problems(“expert reaction to drop in air pollution because of COVID-19 | Science Media Centre,” n.d.). But these data show how the future will be if we reduced the use of cars and used modern technology, experts say. In the UK, there is the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (UKCEH)That monitors the ammonia but the monitoring of our carbon dioxide is placed in central London to track the emission. It only shows that there are only a few attempts to track future health problems by non-profit organizations while we need considerable action in this manner.

NO2 pollution before and after the outbreak of COVID-19 in France
NO2 pollution before and after the outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy

It is a known fact that developed countries produced a large amount of pollution as the industry is wider. The authority’s restrictions and curfews during the virus outbreak caused a dramatic improvement in air quality from the same time one year ago and in the past few weeks (Todorović, n.d.). Therefore, the air becomes cleaner above large cities and regions that heavily loaded with factories and power plants. Cities like Milan, Paris, and Madrid that have been hit hardly by the infectious disease showed a huge drop in NO2 as the economy and transportation activities at a bare minimum due to the government restriction to limit the spread of COVID-19. The statistics showed that people are 84% likely to die in areas with higher air pollution than other especially those with chronic diseases.

Infectious Diseases and Transports

The expansion of transport networks has a major impact on the global spread of diseases and made the world connected by air, sea, and land easily. There are few downsides of the global expansion of transportation which are infectious diseases, pandemics, vector invasion events and vector-borne pathogen importation (Tatem, Rogers, & Hay, 2006). Within a few months, the COVID-19 extent from Wuhan-China to all parts of the world that shows how easily can a disease sweep the continentals than ever before. Infectious such as the global influenza pandemics, the devastating Anopheles gambiae invasion of Brazil, Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases and recently COVID-19. As the economy grows, human mobility in high-income countries, the volume, and speed of travel are unprecedented. It began with the commercial aviation put people at the risk of new strains of familiar diseases, or from new one; the last five centuries have seen more infectious diseases than ever before (Karlen, 1995).

The history showed that over the past 500 years, the establishment of worldwide transport networks has facilitated pandemics diseases such as Plague, Cholera, Influenza, HIV/AIDS, SARS, Bioterrorism, Malaria, Dengue, and Yellow Fever. The research (Tatem et al., 2006) highlighted that despite the type of transport, the potential of disease emergence and spread can happen very quickly as modern transportation makes the control of infections and quarantine increasingly irrelevant and we must expect more of communicable pandemics. It is suggested to have more predictable information like temporal variations in passengers number and quantifying the relative importance of all types of transports for disease movement.

A National Active Transportation Strategy can Reduce Chronic Diseases & Health Care Costs
Source: cape.ca

In the same line, the rapid development and economic growth in central Africa showed the risk of infectious diseases. Despite the positive outcomes from these changes, the region became more vulnerable to future outbreaks (Munster et al., 2018). Relying on the previous outbreak of the Ebola virus, the research mentioned that urban and mobile populations are among the factors which might enable the virus to spread even quicker than before putting the risk of many lives in danger. Researchers predicted that by 2030 Central Africa will use more accessible routes, mining and hydroelectric industries and road constructions which not only affect the ecosystem but also increase the opportunity for new infectious diseases and quicker outbreaks. These are clear signs that rapid and unplanned development can destroy the ecosystem and any demographic-economic changes conspire to cause major outbreaks in both national and international level.

When we talk about the COVID-19 outbreak, we notice how quickly this virus spread globally with a few months of the first case in China. Notwithstanding the previous scenarios with the many outbreaks, we can imply that governments have not prepared properly for such incidents. Bill Gates in his popular talk on TEDx in 2015 discussed that the world is not ready for the next epidemic and that he predicted such an outbreak can kill many if it ignored (Gates, 2015). The questions arise here is that why we don’t pay further attention to the scientific facts that derived from history and experience? Why we need more lives to be taken to establish a stronger foundation to deal with such events? Bill Gates is one of many environmentalists who brought up this topic but yet little efforts have been made. He further talked about how little we invest in healthcare systems while we rapidly grow the industry, and that only the beginning of a series of pandemics if we stay unprepared (TED Connects, 2020).

Healthy Cities

When we discuss diseases and factors that affect humans, we cannot isolate architecture and the built environment. Over the years, architecture has been one of the most growing elements in the cities and any country development is measured by it, the fact that most countries are proud of the development and the rapid growth of their businesses. Healthy cities are continually creating and enhancing the physical activities and social environments that to expand resources that enable people to support each other and maximizing their potential. WHO listed the aims of a healthy city:

  • To create a health-supportive environment
  • To achieve a good quality air
  • To provide basic sanitation and hygiene needs
  • To supply access to health care

That being said, it is essential to provide good infrastructure to achieve this level of a healthy city rather than focusing on improving the political, economic and social arenas(“WHO | Healthy Cities,” 2019)

Galway Healthy Cities, which has been a member of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Healthy Cities since 2006, aims to establish an effective program that puts the health and social-economic and political agenda of all agencies. One of their main themes is to strengthen communities by building supportive healthy urban planning and design that includes housing and regeneration and so on(Galway Healthy Cities Projects, 2018). Although the organization’s main aim is Galway City, it purposes an initiative framework that helps designers to promote urban planning and tackling public health priorities.

The research of (Davies & Kelly, 2014) highlighted the importance of healthy cities and the need for multiple instruments to evaluate the strategies, the research also talked about the qualitative non-oriented approaches to evaluate the outcome. It was until the nineteenth century that realizes how important the provision of roads, housing and water supplies and the focus of medical attention in a modern way; the rapid industrial revolution and urbanization that resulted in human factory waster and pollution.

Food and COVID-19

There is some debate about the way meat should be cooked, some research confirmed that properly cooked meat kills harmful bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli that can be poisoned and result in illness and death (Fillion & Henry, 1998). Whilst others argue that fully cooked can minimize the benefits and nutrition’s in food, in fact, it reduces the amount of fibres. There is no confirmed evidence that non-cooked meals can spread the COVID-19 but the WHO urges people to heat their meals before consumption. An article published by CNN talked about the reasons to blame for coronavirus (Walsh & Cotovio, 2020)

Bats are a possible source of the coronavirus, but some scientists say humans are to blame for the spread of the disease.

Bats have been one of the controversial topics that led to the spread of coronavirus that was originated in Wuhan in China. Experts claim that bats are possible source of the disease yet they are not to blame for the transfer, humans are. The original virus might originate in bats as one of the cases has been seen in Chinese horseshoe bats, however, bat communities often untouched by humans to spread across Earth but we did. The numbers of animals that are shipped in large numbers than never before “said Cunningham to CNN”, it can make the other animals more vulnerable to infection as they too are stressed, as we as humans. It is an indisputable sign that environmental damage can kill humans fast too, and if it ever happened again, it will be for the same reasons.

Pathogens that have evolved in bats can withstand a high body temperature, so a human fever will not work as a defense mechanism.